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散装物料的热交换,余热能量的回收利用

时间:2010-09-21 16:46点击次数:
 

 散装物料的热交换,余热能量的回收利用

近年来, 作为调质塔的预热层, 板式换热器广泛应用于压力厂回收余热. This technology was first introduced into China by Desmet Company and invented and patented by Solex Company of Canada.Your complete cooking oil project solution supplier and technology partner-- China Henan Huatai Cereals And Oils Machinery Co.有限公司,The grain and oil machines produced by China Huatai have made full use of the theory of heat exchange of bulk materials and waste heat energy recovery and utilization, 取得了显著的成绩.
在2021年7月刚刚出版的《皇冠365App首页》杂志上, Gerald Marinitsch of Solex Thermal Science introduced how indirect heat exchanger technology provides an environmentally friendly alternative to bulk solid materials in the form of waste heat recovery.

 
Moving bed heat exchangers can help reduce carbon and energy consumption in certain industrial processes by recovering and reusing waste heat
在许多工业过程中, 块状固体需要热处理以满足或提供最终皇冠365App首页规格. 例如, calcification is a high-temperature process that removes oxygen and volatiles to produce high-quality 水泥 and other refractories.
以金属生产产生的废物为例. 加工过程中产生余热. 金属的生产过程需要大量的热量. 当废料从熔融物质冷却为粒状固体时, 大量未使用的热量留在大块的固体中. 从932°F到1,472°F(500至800°C), 能量被浪费或需要额外的能量来更快地冷却皇冠365App首页, 而热堆的产物只能自己慢慢冷却. 在大多数情况下,水被喷到热桩上,造成能量损失.
在现代国际社会中,浪费有用的能源已不再是可接受的, 因为它与日益突出的环保原则背道而驰, 社会和公司治理(ESG). ESG原则反映了企业的工作, industries and communities to replace energy-intensive and often polluting processes with new methods to achieve efficient use of the primary energy consumed while minimizing negative impacts.
块状固体材料热交换器, 也被称为移动床热交换器(MBHE), 已经用了几十年了. Waste heat recovery is being promoted as a technology to recover heat energy from granular solids and reuse it in a variety of ways. 例如, 固体材料产生的热量可以交换到其他工作流体,如水, 蒸汽, 热油, 空气, 甚至是超临界二氧化碳(sCO2). 这种热交换使得热能可以在工厂的其他过程中使用. 如果回收的余热不能用于生产或制造过程中, 在超过752°F(400°C)的温度下回收的能量可以用于蒸汽或燃气轮机, 有机朗肯循环(ORC)和超临界二氧化碳循环发电. The low calorific value heat left in the power generation can be used to heat other areas of the plant or to operate absorption chillers that produce cold (cold) water. 在某些情况下,低热值的热量可以为工厂或地区提供供热系统.
然而, it is necessary to understand some of the terms and technologies used in these processes before further understanding of some of the terms and technologies used in these processes.
换热器是一种可以在不混合流动流体的情况下进行换热的装置
概述:块状固体物料与热交换
大多数人都理解“热传递”和“废热回收”等术语。. 然而,对“大体积固体”的理解是相对陌生的. 通过定义, 块状固体主要是松散和干燥颗粒的集合体, 这些材料占全球运输货物的80%以上. 我们每个人每天都接触到大量的固体, 是否使用盐, 糖, 面粉, 胡椒或宠物食品. 从更广泛的角度来看, 块状固体包括所有东西,包括油籽, 谷物和矿物质变成了化学物质, 塑料, 水泥, 金属和沙子. 个别材料的形状和大小可能有所不同, 它们可以以粉末的形式出现, 颗粒, 片段, 平板电脑, 和水晶.
在许多固体最终成为最终皇冠365App首页之前(如糖), 它们通常要经过一些包括加热的加工步骤, 冷却, 或干燥. 这就需要在热交换器中进行某种形式的传热.
固体传热的传统技术包括流化床, 滚筒干燥, 和固定床或移动床热交换器. 用于流化床和转鼓干燥技术, 传热介质或工质与固体直接接触. In the past heat exchangers were limited to "components that allow the transfer of heat from one liquid (liquid or gas) to another fluid", 而是间接体积固体热交换器, 它允许固体和液体(液体或气体)之间的热量传递, 也很流行.
用于间接散装固体热交换器, 热交换是通过对板或管表面的传导来实现的. 在移动床上进行热交换, 固体和工作流体之间没有接触, 而颗粒状固体通过自身重力通过热交换器. 这种进料卸料方式可以与连续进料卸料筒仓相比较. 原则上, 板式换热器可以用任何传热介质进行加热或冷却, 包括水, 热油和蒸汽. 该间接散装固体换热器不包括除卸料装置以外的任何运动部件. 出料装置可保证物料流量均匀,从而保证固体的均匀加热或冷却.
间接体积固体热交换器采用热传导, where 固体和工作流体之间没有接触 as the granular solid flows through the heat exchanger by its own gravity.
废热利用加热固体颗粒
余热利用的机会并不局限于工厂的其他部分. The heat recovered from the thermal product or 空气 stream by a heat treatment step (such as a sintering machine) can greatly improve the thermal efficiency of the process by reusing the energy. 也有助于打开设备的瓶颈.
这种能量回收方法在油籽加工工业中很常见. The oil at normal temperature is heated by the 蒸汽 generated in the processing process or the waste heat generated by the 蒸汽 from other processes. 对于这个预热步骤, 将油籽从环境温度加热到所需温度, 通常140至194°f(60至90°C), which reduces the overall energy consumption of preheating and provides a good return on investment for the installation of MBHE.
除了, heat energy can be recovered from 冷却 solid bulk materials and used in another process step that requires heating solid bulk materials. 在许多工艺应用中,温度水平和热负荷不匹配. 通过将热泵集成到系统中, the required temperature level on either the hot or cold side of the system can be adjusted to meet the process conditions required at both ends. This operation depends not only on the exact temperature and the coefficient of performance (COP) of the heat pump system. They can provide an efficient double-acting energy boost: lowering the temperature of the cold side and raising the temperature of the hot side.
The picture shows a common energy recovery cycle design used to cool high-temperature bulk solids (such as ash, 石油焦或石墨)
固体材料的热交换效率
The heat balance around any heat exchanger is simple: the heat energy entering the bulk solid heat exchanger is the same as that leaving the heat exchanger. 因此, 如果热交换器完全绝缘, 换热效率或热效率是最理想的. 从壳体或外墙散热是降低热效率的唯一途径, 哪些受热交换器周围绝缘的影响.
The effectiveness of heat transfer is the energy that can be transferred or transferred from solids and working fluids to solids and working fluids. 与其他热交换器没有区别, it is the heat transfer surface area that determines the amount of energy transferred (and the effectiveness of heat transfer). Indirect bulk material-solid heat exchangers are usually configured to transfer heat in countercurrent to maximize heat transfer efficiency.
The achievable temperature difference between the solid and the working fluid is an important consideration in evaluating efficiency. Assume that the operating temperature of the cryogenic heater or cooler is 302 to 392°F (150 to 200°C) or less. The temperature difference between the solid and the working fluid is usually between 18 and 27°F (10 and 15°C).
适用于皇冠365App首页温度为752°F(400°C)及以上的场合, 工作流体温度差通常在90 ~ 180°F(50 ~ 100°C)左右, 但可能更高. 例如, 如果用水冷却进入热交换器1的固体颗粒,832°F (1,000°C), 与水的温差可轻易达到1440°F(800°C).
为了达到预期的效果,任何体积固体的热交换过程, careful consideration must be given when sizing the heat exchanger and the associated technical requirements as well as economic feasibility and return on investment must be taken into account.
在榨油厂, 采用三个热回收回路,将余热充分回收再利用,对油进行预热
例如:能源回收的可行性
所以,什么时候是能量恢复? 这个问题没有通用的答案, 但一个简单的例子可以说明主要能源成本的潜力.
考虑到大约100,000千卡/小时(~120KW)余热, 这种热量可以从固体冷却中回收. Utilizing the waste heat of a production plant that runs continuously for about 320 days per year will generate about 780 g/h (920MWh) of usable energy
能源的成本取决于能源的主要来源. 考虑到1 MCAL (0.042∈/kWh)每小时约为us $0.2005年,使用现有能源每年将为工厂节省46,000美元(39,000欧元)的直接成本. 对于较大的工厂来说,这些数字很容易计算出来,从而节省更多成本. 利用余热除了省钱外,还有一个非常现实的环境因素. 通过减少输入, 特别是当投入的能源来自化石燃料时, 它对减少温室气体排放也有重大影响. 如果被取代的主要皇冠365App首页来自石油或天然气, 每年减少温室气体排放约500吨二氧化碳.
Moving bed heat exchanger or MBHE is a proven technology that has not yet reached its full potential in the utilization process. Such technology can effectively recover and utilize waste heat generated by 冷却 or heating of bulk solids.Your complete cooking oil project solution supplier and technology partner-- China Henan Huatai Cereals And Oils Machinery Co.有限公司,The grain and oil machines produced by China Huatai have made full use of the theory of heat exchange of bulk materials and waste heat energy recovery and utilization, 取得了显著的成绩.

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